Veterinary Medical and CT: Part 3 – What is the ROI on CT?

July 7, 2018: I am refreshing the series of blogs for CT in Veterinary Medical with updated information. -RW

I’d love to stick to the numbers on this one because that would be simple. But the reality is that a true look at value and ROI is more slippery than just numbers, especially when it comes to the overall value that our clients and patients receive in terms of our clinical culture.

As veterinary professionals, we invest time and energy into the tools and skills that produce better outcomes for our clients and patients. If our clients and patients get better outcomes, our clinics get better outcomes. If our clinics have better outcomes, we have better outcomes as veterinary professionals.

If an investment does not equally benefit both ourselves as professionals and the client-patient relationship, we fail in the long run to honor our commitment to our profession.

Most may think that a return on investment (ROI) is only about the dollars that return on an investment.  ROI is bigger than doing the math of “gains minus costs divided by costs”.

Investments are about increasing value, and ROI should explore the different kinds investments a clinic makes. This includes investment in equipment dollars, clients and patients, the people we work with, ourselves as veterinary professionals and the clinical culture we create together.

That said, this look at ROI is multifaceted and nuanced. It does take the numbers into account. It explores the client & patient side of perceived value. It takes your investment in your employees and yourself seriously as big factors in creating a positive clinical culture.

Investing in computed tomography (CT) returns in many ways on several different levels. After we get through the ROI elements, I will walk you through the specific steps you will need to take to make a CT purchase work for you, for your clinic, for your employees and for your clients & patients.

ROI #1: ELEVATED DIAGNOSTICS

OsteoSarc CBCT MPR View

Diagnostic return is the main reason we should consider purchasing a CT machine. Veterinarians can obtain more detailed information within the targeted anatomy of the animal patient when compared to typical radiographs. Cross-sectional CT images of the animal patient allow a veterinarian to evaluate the precise location and scope of an identified mass or lesion. Radiography and ultrasound are both limited in providing this high level of precision.

A veterinary hospital can raise the level of diagnostic information that can be generated on-site with an investment in CT.

ROI #2: INCREASE OF GOODWILL

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Goodwill is another form of return on an investment in CT. Goodwill has value in any business. It can be defined as perceived value. It is always considered in decisions by prospective clients, pet owners, partners, and associates. You cannot see, touch, smell, or taste goodwill. It’s more of a gut feeling generated by an overall sense of culture, customer service, and level of attentiveness that is standard practice. A familiar companion of goodwill is called trust. Trust that comes from neighbors and patrons is important in the long-term success of any business. A veterinary hospital obtains more goodwill & trust when it develops a reputation for practicing medicine at a higher level with investments in new technology and training.

ROI #3: ENHANCED CLINICAL CULTUREshutterstock_327440975

The culture in a veterinary hospital is the key to all types of returns. If a veterinary hospital does not normally operate on the cutting edge of medicine and technology, ROI cannot be maximized when adding a CT. A positive, upbeat culture is embodied by engaged, happy employees who have the autonomy, skills and confidence to do their job well. Clients and patients almost always leave happy. They are glad to speak highly of your team and your services in the public space.

The opposite is a culture where veterinarians and their team members see their daily experience as a grind of frustration. Bare minimum or low-budget medicine is practiced. The lowest bid always wins with equipment purchases. Employees do not feel empowered or inspired to go the extra mile. Clients and employees turn over quickly in these environments. Without the proper culture, adding a technology like CT will fall flat and the returns will disappoint.

ROI #4: TRAINING

Investment in cutting edge medicine needs to be coupled with cutting edge training to enhance client, patient, and employee culture. Skills training of team members in veterinary hospitals has not caught up to the technology on a broad scale…yet. In many small animal hospitals, ultrasound machines have became expensive door stops because of this. A CT could have the same fate if you’re not investing in the skills of your staff to use it effectively.

The good news: Veterinary Intelligence (www.vetxq.com), has developed a formal CT training program specifically for veterinarians and veterinary technicians. We will have a team of veterinary CT technologists and board-certified veterinary radiologists who teach our clients all that they need to know about CT procedures in a general veterinary practice.

ROI #5: DOLLARS & ‘SENSE’

 

This is the part you’ve all been waiting for. This section is last because the other pieces of the puzzle need to be in place as you consider making this investment. A hospital owner must be able to pay for the machine, training, operations, and maintenance while also producing profit from using the machine. Profit is healthy and fair for all business entities so as long as value is produced and received by all parties. Those who are satisfied with breaking even (or just barely exceeding the breakeven) often find themselves constantly struggling. Animal hospitals must prioritize staff training in technology tools. It pays off in all the ways outlined above in this post. The right culture plus a healthy profit will often yield growth in trustworthiness and increase the longevity of the hospital. The long-term result of this is called “creating a legacy”.

FIRST CONSIDERATION: FINANCING YOUR CT

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Choose wisely when selecting a finance plan for your equipment. Some vendors will offer their own financing plans. Sometimes, vendors are receiving a commission on the financing in addition to the profit from the equipment sale. Most of the time these vendor finance deals are leases. Leases, in my opinion, are toxic. ALWAYS read the fine print and/or have your attorney do that for you.

Simple interest loans with a fixed APR are the best option for equipment. Therefore, the cheapest financing is rarely with the vendor you are purchasing the equipment from. The best advice: Give your local banker a shot at the financing first. Another option is to consider lending entities who specialize in veterinary equipment financing. There are several experienced equipment financing entities whose representatives understand veterinarians and the veterinary business.

THE SECOND CONSIDERATION: ANALYZING THE NUMBERS

Several things factor into the purchase of CT machine. The stakes are raised on this type of purchase simply because this will be the most expensive piece of equipment a veterinarian will buy, except for an MRI.

Equipment Purchase – This should include the gantry, couch, and workstation. Sales tax and freight are also added to this number. Signing an order for this equipment is simply the beginning of all work that must be done. No other piece of equipment will require as much preparation and training as a CT will. https://vetxq.com/equipment/

Training – All vendors will offer some type of training regimen with the CT or Cone Beam CT. Some vendors will offer training included with the purchase price. Others may charge an additional fee. Training by vendors are designed to get you started, not to help you and your staff maximize the tool.  https://vetxq.com/training/

Service and Maintenance – Extended service and maintenance costs are important. Spiral CT purchases are often intimidating because of these extended service and maintenance programs. However, you will see later on that the spiral CT is very capable of paying its way in a veterinary practice. I have known some Cone Beam CT vendors who include 5 years of warranty and service with the unit at purchase. The Cone Beam is usually more simplistic in design because it is simply a DR unit on wheel. There are fewer moving parts and CBCT units turn at a significantly lower RPM than a spiral CT.

When purchasing a refurbished spiral CT, the 5 year warranty is just not offered by any vendor, to my knowledge. Spiral CT vendors can and will offer some kind of warranty at purchase. It could be 90 days or up to one year. This plan may or may not include preventive maintenance. That is why it is important to understand all aspects of the offering.

READ YOUR TERMS AND CONDITIONS ON ALL SERVICE CONTRACTS! Have your attorney read them too if that makes you feel better. Hint: CT service contracts are all written in favor of the vendor & manufacturer. Do not be surprised at that, it is the usual CYA language that all big corporations put out to keep themselves protected from litigation.

Facility Modification or New Construction? – All existing animal hospitals who wish to add a CT will be required to modify their current facility to some degree. Room size and electrical are the first factors to consider. Shielding and climate control are equally important. There are newer CT and CBCT machines that can utilize 120v power source with a dedicated circuit instead of the usual 220v – 240v. Again, read the specs of the machine and read the contract!

You also should check with your local and/or state health department on radiation shielding code regulations. If you plan on building a new addition to the current space or plan to move into a brand new building altogether; the earlier your contractor gets involved with your CT vendor, the better.

Other Costs – There are several “forgotten costs” that are often overlooked when adding a CT or CBCT. Without consideration, these costs can create shortfalls in your hospital’s operating budget and inventory.

Additional equipment may be needed: (1) Anesthesia Machine, Vaporizer, Concentrator, and Patient Monitor (2) Radiation safety accessories (gowns, gloves, collars, mobile shielding, and warning signage) (3) Foam troughs and other animal positioning aids.

Incremental Costs (per exam): These costs occur each time a CT exam is performed. (1) Radiologist Consult (2) Drugs (contrast agents, anesthesia, IV fluids) (3) Consumable Items (syringes, needles etc.) (4) Technician Labor

THIRD CONSIDERATION: Profit or Loss?

CONE BEAM CT P/L ANALYSIS

This is an example of a cash flow analysis for a Cone Beam CT. The pricing on goods and services used in this example may or may not be current (or accurate) for any given vendor or manufacturer. This is a simple learning tool for the reader.

Cost Analysis Cone Beam CT

SPIRAL CT P/L ANALYSIS

This is an example of a cash flow analysis for a Spiral CT. The pricing on goods and services used in this example may or may not be current (or accurate) for any given vendor or manufacturer. This is a simple learning tool for the reader.

Cost Analysis Spiral CT

All readers of this blog are free to discern what you will about these two analysis sheets. You should not make any decisions based on these particular cost analysis numbers because it is possible that the pricing and services from CT or CBCT vendors could be completely different than what I have shown here. Each situation is different for a particular veterinarian and his or her facility.

READ ALL CONTRACTS CAREFULLY! Use an attorney if it makes you feel better. Ask a lot of questions. These two analysis sheets are based on my own past experience as a veterinary imaging consultant, a partner in an animal hospital, and as a sales person.

CONCLUSION

CT should enhance all the ways your animal hospital offers value to clients, patients, employees and to the bottom line. But it’s not just about the dollars. It’s really about increasing value through investment in better client / patient outcomes, a positive clinical culture, and a healthier balance sheet. However, if we stop there, we fall short. It’s about improving our standard of practice as veterinary professionals. CT can help provide that under the right circumstances.

Do your research. Be confident in your choice. Do not allow yourself to be fooled or bullied. I am happy to step in and help you.

https://vetxq.com/equipment/

Part 3 completes this series on CT in veterinary medical. I hope this series has been informative and helpful. Please contact me by email with any questions and please take some time to visit our website http://www.vetxq.com.

Robert Whitaker’s Email: rwhitaker58@me.com

Veterinary Medical and CT – Part 2 – Is CT right for my veterinary practice?

Learning about CT and Cone Beam CT in veterinary medical applications.

July 7, 2018: I am refreshing the series of blogs for CT in Veterinary Medical with updated information. -RW

Considering investing in a CT for your vet practice? Read this first.

You’ve probably already spoken to at least one sales person who has promised you the moon, and you’d like to trust that they have your best interests at heart. But how can you be sure that you’re investing in the right CT system that will help you round out your hospital’s imaging capabilities? You use ultrasound like a champ and your techs take fantastic digital radiographs. So…what about CT or Cone Beam CT? Purchasing one of these units is a lot more expensive than your ultrasound and your DR combined! You probably have more questions than a sales rep has good answers to.

What about asking a veterinary radiologist?

It is wise to seek good counsel from an experienced veterinary radiologist. I’ve talked to many veterinary radiologists about CT, and I’ve found two camps. The first is of the opinion that general practice veterinarians should avoid purchasing a CT, leaving specialty imaging to those who will “do it right” – which gets you high quality images that support accuracy of diagnosis. The second camp recommends CT as a good investment for a general practitioner. They believe that CT imaging in general practice, with proper staff training, continues the advancement of patient diagnostics at that level. In other words, a rising tide floats all boats.

Radiology Humor

A quick laugh about radiologists. A human radiologic technologist once told me that if you put 5 radiologists in a room and you will get 6 different opinions.

Investing in a CT scanner is no small decision

Before diving in, you must learn what CT is as a technology and what it is designed to be used for in veterinary applications. Not all CT machines are created equal in form and function. As stated in Part 1 of this blog, there are two types of CT technology available to veterinarians today, Spiral or Helical CT and Cone Beam CT.  This post goes into detail about the differences between Spiral or Helical CT and Cone Beam CT.

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What sales reps probably don’t know about Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

Why CBCT was developed

CBCT technology was originally developed for applications specific to human dentistry. These units are designed to produce high resolution cross-sectional exams of the human skull. The factory software in all CBCT machines can render the exam into a 3D model onscreen or into a more traditional stack of 2D images. This is really awesome. However, there are diagnostic limitations with 2D and 3D images from a CT scan of soft tissue organs in the abdomen. 3D images are of little diagnostic value to board-certified veterinary radiologists. Radiologists always rely on the 2D image stack in cross-sectional imaging modalities to report their findings.

So manufacturers of CBCT took a technology originally developed for human dentistry and adapted it for the veterinary market. This can be problematic if you plan to use the machine outside of dental applications in small animals.

Veterinary Medical Indications for Use of Cone Beam CT Technology:

Bone: skull fractures / nasal masses / dentistry / distal extremities / spine IVDD (requires contrast)

Soft Tissue: NO RECOMMENDED INDICATIONS ON MOST ANIMAL PATIENTS

The Science behind CBCT

CBCT emits a cone-shaped pattern of radiation, earning it the name “cone beam”. Essentially, a CBCT is a digital radiography system fitted onto a wheel inside of the familiar looking CT gantry. It contains a small flat panel detector (usually about 18cm x 16cm) and it is positioned perpendicular to a cone beam x-ray tube (like the tube in a conventional x-ray system). As the wheel with the components is moved 1 degree at a time around the target anatomy, a digital radiograph is acquired, and then it advances another 1 degree and takes another and so on, until it completes a full revolution around the animal patient. The data is then rendered by software into several different image data sets and transmitted to a PACS for storage and review.

Cone beam tubes produce a wide cone shaped signal pattern, originating at the tube (the point of the cone) and scattering outward toward the panel. This typically produces more scatter and thus there is less detail in soft tissue images when compared to spiral / helical CT modalities.

This is especially problematic in animals over 20 lbs., or in animals that are much larger than a human skull.

Can CBCT be a good tool for a veterinary hospital?

The hardware and software of CBCT units were optimized to acquire high resolution images of the human skull and particularly, the human mandible and maxillary portions of the skull. This means that it can definitely be a good tool for veterinarians who are passionate about canine and feline dentistry. Some veterinarians would be very interested in acquiring high resolution images of the patient’s skull which is crucial for quality performance of veterinary dental procedures such as extractions and reconstructive surgery.

The CBCT can also be used successfully for studies in the spine (IVDD with the use of proper positioning, collimation, and contrast). CBCT is also good when evaluating the integrity of joints and extremities (ex. canine elbow disease and osteosarcomas).

If the CBCT user can be trained to operate the technology within these limited indications, it can be diagnostically useful to a veterinary hospital, yet it will remain limited as compared to the spiral CT technology.

Some shortcomings of CBCT

  1. CBCT units were not designed to perform scans of the thorax or abdomen on human or animal patients.
  2. Most CBCT manufacturers’ machines do not allow cranial to caudal movement of the patient. The table or couch does not move automatically. This means that operators need to move the table or move the patient if the targeted anatomy does not fit within the finite field of view. Essentially, the CBCT unit remains stationary over the targeted anatomy and the field of view is limited to the finite dimensions of the selected capture area (L x W x D) in the acquisition software. This results in more than one series of images which will need to be either stitched together into a single stack of images or organized separately as individual image stacks. This can often frustrate a veterinary radiologist when reading a Cone Beam CT case that does not utilize automated and precise movement of the patient on the couch during the scanning process. When attempting to image the spine with CBCT, this can be a challenge for the operator to perform and for the radiologist to read.
  3. CBCT scans can also take more time to complete. If the thorax / lung fields were to be the targeted anatomy; as animals breathe and the heart beats distortions are produced from the motion within the chest cavity during the scan. A manually induced breath-hold (while under full anesthesia), can reduce the effects of “motion artifact” from the lungs but the heart continues to beat so motion artifact remains problematic if the heart is what is targeted. In the animal patient, the most precise evaluation of the heart should be performed with ultrasound (i.e. an echocardiogram) and thoracic radiographs.

                 4 Slice CT Lungs                  CBCT Lungs

Note: the entire lung field is captured by the CT. The CBCT leaves out some of the lung field due to its confined field of view. Lung views in the CT image stack are much higher in resolution. In the CBCT image, there are too many artifacts, and in this case an incomplete field of view for a radiologist to read it successfully.

                  CBCT Abdomen      4 Slice CT Abdomen

Veterinary Radiologists and CBCT

In general, all boarded veterinary radiologists are familiar with spiral CT as it has been around in veterinary specialty clinics for a couple of decades. However, most, but not all veterinary radiologists have done little or no research on the cone beam CT technology. Therefore, most veterinary radiologists will have a negative opinion about cone beam CT simply because they know very little about it and how it’s meant to be properly used.

Radiation Safety

The CBCT folks claim their technology produces less exposure to radiation for patients and operators. They argue that lead-lined walls are not required. Depending on various state regulations, this claim may be true. The accuracy of such statements are at the mercy of the local regulations of the end user. In addition to that, we are simply comparing apples to oranges when comparing CBCT to CT. Remember, the core design of CBCT technology is limited in application to the skull or extremities. These anatomy indeed require less radiation for acquisition of diagnostic images. However, in reality, it is not much less radiation than what a spiral CT uses to acquire diagnostic images on the same anatomy.

In my opinion, it is always better to err on the side of safety. Go ahead and design your CT room with lead-lined sheetrock and place the acquisition workstation outside of the CT room behind a lead-infused glass barrier where your technologist can see the patient and the attending technician. Yes, this costs more money up front but it can save a practice from safety citations and lower the potential for employee / client litigation in the long run.

Can a veterinary hospital be successful with CBCT?

The short answer is yes. The CBCT can be applied successfully in animal hospitals that perform a high volume of dentistry cases, and can be used effectively with imaging extremities as well as IVDD.

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Computed Tomography Training for Veterinary Teams

CBCT and CT are not easy modalities to add in a veterinary hospital environment. Floor plan and power are not the only challenges we face either. The proper amount of training and the proper types of training are what make CT the greatest challenge of all imaging modalities. Even ultrasound (which requires copious amounts of personnel training) is actually easier to integrate into a vet practice than CT is. The bummer is that most vendors who are selling CBCT and CT to veterinarians are doing minimal training with their buyers.

The good news: Veterinary Intelligence (www.vetxq.com), has developed a formal CT training program specifically for veterinarians and veterinary technicians. We will have a team of veterinary CT technologists and board-certified veterinary radiologists who teach our clients all that they need to know about CT procedures in a general veterinary practice.

CBCT Summary:

PRO: Perfect for small animal dentistry applications. Good image quality in canine and feline skulls as well as distal extremities.

PRO: Always sold brand new. Cost $175k – $250k depending on the vendor. 5-year warranty and service programs are offered with the purchase of CBCT from most vendors.

CON: Soft tissue image detail in the abdomen and thorax of animal patients is inferior to those generated by spiral CT.

CON: Field of View. A finite field of view on most CBCT machines can cause increased operator errors during acquisition. Most CBCT units do not move the patient or move through the patient cranial to caudal (automatically) which requires the manual movement of the patient by the operator and this produces multiple image stacks.

CON: Training. Most vendors do not offer a comprehensive training program for vet techs and veterinarians. Most invest a few hours to teach the client basic operation with safety training after installation. This is problematic because the client is left to learn more valuable lessons by trial and error.

CON: Radiologist review and reporting. Most boarded veterinary radiologists will refuse to read and report on CBCT cases from veterinary hospitals. Only a select few are willing to read CBCT cases. VitalRads.com is one of the few veterinary teleradiology services that read veterinary Cone Beam CT exams.

What you need to know about Spiral CT (CT)

Spiral or helical computed tomography equipment is specifically designed for cross-sectional scans of soft tissue and bone in human patients. The CT couch or table slowly moves the patient through the spiraling signal. One newer CT design has a mobilized gantry that uses a motorized wheel system underneath to “crawl” over the table or couch where the patient is positioned.

An acquisition workstation and software render the acquired dataset and organize the data into one or more readable exams based on selected anatomy and protocol.

So this is also a technology that was adapted for veterinary from human medicine.

Veterinary Medical Indications for CT Scans

Soft Tissue: met checks / mass ID / lungs / liver / spleen / GI tract / urinary tract

Bone: skull fractures / nasal masses / dentistry / distal extremities / complete spine / hips / pelvis

The fundamental technology consists of a specially designed x-ray tube that emits a confined linear beam of photons which pass through the patient that is received by a linear array of sensors as the scanning unit it continuously spins around the patient at high speed.

What’s the deal with CT and the number of “slices”?

You may have overheard a conversation about CT where someone refers to the number of “slices” their particular CT has. This is because the higher the number of “slices”, the better the image quality. Ultimately, image quality in a CT is determined by the number of channels (aka slices) available in the sensor array. Please note that “slices” is a misnomer that is essentially ‘medical slang’ referring to the number of channels in the CT’s sensor array.

The more channels a CT sensor array has, the faster it can scan a patient, raw data acquisition also increases and then is processed into higher resolution images. The more raw data that acquired, the clearer the image quality. A 40 slice CT system can perform a full body scan on a 90 pound Labrador retriever in less than 15 seconds and still produce impeccable image quality. This occurs when the operator (aka technologist) is experienced and well-trained in applications and protocols for small animal veterinary medicine.

CT Software

Just like all software based technology, CT acquisition software applications have improved immensely over the last ten years. Most modern CT units (manufactured after 2012) will have highly-advanced acquisition software which allows a fully trained technologist to set up customized protocols which is great for applications in animal patients. CT units come from the factory with human presets (scanning protocols) in the software which means that it is up to the veterinarian and the CT technologist to adjust those protocols and customize their own presets for animal patients of various sizes and anatomy.

Some shortcomings of CT

  1. They can cost a lot. Brand new CT units can easily cost a veterinary clinic well over $600k which is often more expensive than the real estate the vet hospital sits on. Purchasing a new or refurbished CT scanner can reduce the investment to below $250k for the equipment purchase. Then you need to add the service and warranty contract after the first year is over. There are older, refurbished, 4 slice CT machines available for sale that cost less than $90k (before you add facility modification, training costs, and extended service agreements). A good rule of thumb is to buy refurbished, buy a well-known brand (GE, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba), and stay between 4 and 16 slices. Always purchase the preventive maintenance package with an extended warranty on the CT x-ray tube.
  2. They are big. Most of the refurbished spiral CT units are huge by comparison to the brand new CBCT units. Spiral CT rooms need to be at least 15’ x 15’ when developing the room’s floor plan. All of the CBCT units I know of can exist in a 12’ x 12’ sized room.

Veterinary Radiologists and CT

In general, all boarded veterinary radiologists are familiar with spiral CT as they each were trained on how to read CT images from spiral CT units. You should have no problem finding a boarded radiologist to read your CT scans from a spiral CT.

If a vet hospital can maximize the use of a CT, it is a good investment to go with a spiral CT because it’s simply more versatile. Radiologists are more open to reading CT scans. They do take up more room but a spiral CT makes more sense for most general veterinary practices.

Can a veterinary hospital successfully use CT?

Absolutely yes. CT can be used successfully in animal hospitals who are looking to up their game on imaging and who want to raise the level of practice inside their clinic walls. However, CT is not an easy technology to add to a veterinary hospital. It requires a new level of thinking about when and how imaging is ordered for animal patients. It requires specific training for veterinarians and technicians.

CT Summary

PRO: Versatility. Spiral CT has a broader set of applications than CBCT.

PRO: Reads. All veterinary radiologists are trained and prepared to read CT studies.

PRO: Clarity: Spiral CT is faster, so the “motion artifact” problem is greatly reduced vs. CBCT

PRO: Easy: Spiral CTs come with pre-programmed protocols and can be manually programmed with protocols that your hospital uses frequently. This makes image capture faster and more consistent.

CON: Cost. Higher resolution means better, more diagnostic images, but it also means a higher price tag.

CON: Space. The room size for a spiral CT is greater than the space required for CBCT.

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How does this information help my decision?

Decide what’s important to you! You want to improve your vet hospital’s ability to get great images. CT is a good way to go if you already have an active ultrasound modality and use your DR system to its fullest capacity.

If cost is a major consideration, you will want to consider how to start making your investment back as quickly as possible. That may mean getting some great training with experts in veterinary CT. Look for a full discussion about ROI on CT in an upcoming blog.

If space is a major consideration, that will play into your decision. If you are landlocked in a strip center or your imaging suite simply cannot expand beyond its current footprint, look carefully at the space required for each. We can help you design a new hospital or add on to your new one. See our website: https://vetxq.com/consulting/

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What is the culture in your veterinary practice?

Look at your culture and how you practice vet medicine. Maybe you don’t need a CT. You may not know if it will fit into your culture (i.e. your team’s collective philosophy of how you practice vet medicine). That is okay. It is imperative that you know your practice culture.

Part 2 has been aimed at the comparison of Cone Beam CT and traditional Helical or Spiral CT. Please contact me by email with any questions and please take some time to visit our website http://www.vetxq.com.

Robert Whitaker’s Email: rwhitaker58@me.com

Veterinary Medical and CT: Part 1

July 7, 2018: I am refreshing the series of blogs for CT in Veterinary Medical with updated information. -RW

CT machines have begun to make their way onto the wish lists of many general veterinary practitioners. A few general practitioners who already own a CT. These veterinarians are known as the ‘early adopters’ when it comes to adding new equipment and technology. If you are a veterinarian who is seeking information on CT, you have come to the right place!

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I love veterinary technology and CT is at the top of my list. It is one of the most effective diagnostic tools in advanced veterinary imaging. I am intimate with this imaging modality as I have worked with several practices that own CT and Cone Beam CT equipment. CT is like an iceberg. What you see on the surface is but only a small portion of what is actually there. This is why I am writing a 3-part series on CT. One article cannot do this technology any justice.

Part 1 covers some of the basics. Part 2 will be more detailed as I explain the different types of CT systems currently available to veterinarians. I also outline the indications for veterinary use of the CT in detail. Part 3 covers the critical nuances of integrating CT technology into a general veterinary practice. I also share how I have developed a return on investment for a CT machine.

The basic concept of modern computed tomography is based on x-ray technology with a spin…or shall I say…spins. Essentially, x-rays are used to acquire cross-sectional images of a specific region within a medical patient. CT machines have two halves. The couch (aka table) and the gantry (aka donut). The business end of the CT is all inside of that gantry. What makes one type of CT different from another really cannot be seen on the outside.

There are two types of CT scanners available for sale today.

SPIRAL / HELICAL CT          CONE BEAM CT (CBCT)

cone-vs-helical

The spiral CT machines are the most popular and widely used in human and veterinary medical facilities. I plan on diving into the differences between CT and CBCT in part 2.

As stated earlier, CT machines are being used in all specialty practices and vet schools but are becoming more popular with general practitioners. CT diagnostics include but are not limited to the following:

  1. Skull / Nasal / Brain
  2. C-Spine / T-Spine / Lumbar Spine
  3. Thorax / Met Checks / Masses
  4. Abdomen / Masses / GI Tract / Adrenals
  5. Hips / Pelvis / Extremities

Will CT reduce the need to use X-Ray and ultrasound?

No. It will not replace those modalities nor will it reduce your use of them. CT is often the next step in imaging diagnostics once an ultrasound and/or radiographs point to a more significant issue within the animal patient.

Clinical Scenario #1 

A two-year-old yellow lab presents with abdominal pain. An ultrasound is performed and the findings indicate that there is a mass in the abdomen. The size and exact location of the mass cannot be determined with accuracy. A CT exam will be ordered and the information it provides from the radiologist will indicate the following: 1) where the mass is 2) what it is attached to 3) exactly how large it is. From there a clinician can give the client more information about their pet and provide better options in treatment and prognosis.

Clinical Scenario #2

A ten-year-old DSH feline presents for labored breathing, nasal discharge and lethargy. Radiographs taken of the thorax are reported as normal. A quick view of the heart with the ultrasound reveals there is no pericardial effusion or cardiomegaly. A CT is performed on the skull of the kitty which indicates there is a mass in the nasal cavities and the mass penetrates into the bone. This is where CT provides an answer when ultrasound and x-ray could not. Could we have scoped the nasal cavities of the kitty? Certainly. However, sedation or anesthesia would have also been required to do this and with a CT in the hospital, it is the easiest path to a more comprehensive diagnosis. A rhinoscopy would have provided minimal information in comparison to the 2D and 3D images generated by the CT.

Can I use CT instead of ultrasound or X-ray?

No. CT machines are meant to provide additional answers when the ultrasound or the radiographs fail to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the targeted anatomy. With that said, CT machines are not perfect, as they too have limitations. Example: Ultrasound exams are more suitable than CT for evaluating the heart. All CT exams require anesthesia for the patient and the procedure itself will often cost the client twice as much as an ultrasound or radiographs. It is unwise to think CT can replace an ultrasound or a digital x-ray. This becomes obvious once a veterinarian gains more understanding of the technology and the physics that drive it.

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Is there special training required for adding a CT to my practice? 

Yes. There is special training required for all doctors and technicians. Operating the machine is the easiest training. Sadly, that is mostly all a veterinarian will get from a vendor. If you are planning on buying a CT for your practice, clinical team training will be the most important factor in whether or not the equipment will return the investment. In the specialty hospitals and the universities, veterinary technicians (and sometimes veterinarians) attend a CT camp to learn diagnostic operations and protocols associated with performing CT studies on patients. Unfortunately this type of training features only human patients. The good news: Veterinary Intelligence (www.vetxq.com), has developed a formal CT training program specifically for veterinarians and veterinary technicians. We will have a team of veterinary CT technologists and board-certified veterinary radiologists who teach our clients all that they need to know about CT procedures in a general veterinary practice.

Do general practices in veterinary medical have any business whatsoever purchasing a CT machine? 

The answer to this question depends on several factors. 1. What is the culture of your veterinary practice? If your practice normally implements the best technology in imaging, labs, surgery, and treatments; then CT may be a good option. 2. Is your veterinary practice geographically isolated from veterinary referral centers? If so, adding a CT is definitely a good investment to consider. However, there are some general veterinary practices who are not isolated geographically and they have added CT with success. 3. Does your practice have frequent turnover of technicians and DVM associates? If so, CT would not be a good investment to consider because you obviously have larger problems to address in your hospital. The success of advanced procedures in any discipline of veterinary medical greatly depends on the attrition rate of team members such as technicians and associates. If a practice spends a great deal of time and money training new team members on a regular basis, CT (among other diagnostic tools) is not forgiving.

Part 1 has been aimed at the most basic questions that I get asked when speaking with veterinarians who are looking into buying a CT. Please contact me by email with any questions and please take some time to visit our website http://www.vetxq.com.

Robert Whitaker’s Email: rwhitaker58@me.com